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Hydro fracturing Techniques

Hydro fracturing is a well development process that involves injecting water under high pressure into a hard rock formation in the well. This is intended to increase the size and extent of existing bed rock fractures pumping water into the fractures at high pressure.


Hydraulic pressure is applied to an isolated zone of bore well to initiate and propagate fractures. The water injected at high pressure break up fissures and joints, cleans away all impurities there by the permeability of rock formation is increased.


The basic reason for the failure of bore well in hard rock terrain is the poor hydrological characteristics of fracture system. Normal procedures for hydro fracturing operation includes Pre logging for better identification of aquifer zones, Pre pump test, Hydro fracturing and Post pump test for determination of the well yielding capacity compared before and after hydro fracturing.



Normally up to three zones in each well are done. Operation must be commenced from bottom most fracture zones. Hydro fracturing will be fruitful and effective only if the process is done in the fractured zones below the water table. The ratio of yield of the bore well after hydro fracturing to the yield before fracturing is defined as the Improvement Ratio. [IR].


       

 Operating Procedures:

 Scientifically studying the lithology backed up with electrical logging.

 Demarcation of weathered zones and the aquifers.

 Measurement of static water level and yield of well before fracturing.

 Entering these basic data.

 Lowering of packer to the selected depth and fixing by applying hydraulic pressure

 Opening the booster pump and injection pump to inject water in the isolated down the hole section.

 Noting the minimum and maximum pressure during hydro fracturing shut.

 Measuring water intake during operation.

 Carrying out hydro fracturing @ number of sections selected.Releasing the packer and setting down in the next selected section.

 Pumping out the water intake and measuring the post fracturing yield.

 Entering all these field data.

 Conducting electrical logging after fracturing to study the effect of hydro fracturing.

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