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• The Nilgiris district located on the western part of Tamil Nadu and it is bounded by Karnataka State on the north, Erode District in the east, Coimbatore district on the southeast and by Kerala State on the south and west.
• The District lies between 11º 10'00’’N to 11º43'00’’N Latitude, 76º14'00’’E to 77º02'00’’E Longitude and has an areal extent of 2549 sq.km.
• There are 4 Blocks, 35 Villages and 1233 Habitations in the District.
 Physiography and Drainage:
• The Nilgiris district, an entire hilly terrain district forms part of River Cauvery basin.
• Many streams originate from hill slopes and have formed several rivers in the deep valley portions.
• Many reservoirs are formed in the district to harness surface water and the water is used for drinking and power generation.
• The surplus of Pykara reservoir flows towards north as Pykara River which then flows towards east in the name of river Moyar bordering the northern boundary of the district.
• The surplus flow from Kundah and other reservoirs in the district joins the Bhavani River near Mettupalayam in Coimbatore district.
The average annual rainfall and the 5 years rainfall collected from IMD, Chennai is as follows:
Acutal Rainfall in mmNormal Rainfall in mm
Rock TypeGeological Formation
Hard RockCharnockite, Gneiss, Quartzite
Type of aquifer Unconfined to semi confined aquifers.
Aquifer parameters
Well yield in lpm
Transmissivity (T) m 2/day
Permeability (K) m/day
Depth of Water level5 m to 10m
 Ground Water Level::

No observation wells are being mentored by TWAD Board.

With a view to enhance the Sustainability of the drinking water sources, recharge structures are being implemented by TWAD Board under various State and Central Government assistances.
The Recharge Structures implemented so far is as under.
Recharge Structures
Check Dam Percolation Pond Recharge Pit Recharge Trench Others Ooranies Defunct Bore well Recharge Recharge Shaft Roof top RWH Hydro Fracturing Total
6 100 106
 Groundwater Potential as on March 2011 (as per CGWB):
Net Groundwater Availability (in MCM)118.94
Existing Gross Groundwater draft for all users (in MCM)11.31
Stage of Groundwater development (in %)10 %
Categorization of DistrictSafe
 Categorization of Firkas:
The status of Categorization of firkas as of March 2011 for the District is shown below.
Categorisation based on Extraction (as on 2011) No. of Firkas Firkas
Over Exploited (>100%) -
Critical (90%-100%) -
Semi Critical (70%-90%) -
Safe (<70%) 15 Cherambadi, Coonoor, Devarshola,
Gudalur, Ithalar, Ketti, Kilkotagiri,
Kotagiri, Kundah, Melur, Nedugula,
Pandalur, Sholur, Thuneri,
Others (Poor& Saline) -
Total 15
Water supply status as on 1.4.2017
 Rural Habitations
Total No. of Rural Habitations: 1233
Partially covered55 (10-39 lpcd )
Fully covered1178 (40 lpcd and above)
 Urban Towns (Water supply status - Sep 2016)
S.NOName of Towns Population Present water supply level LPCD
1 Udagamandalam 88430 92
2 Coonoor 45494 76
3 Nalliyalam 44590 83
4 Gudalur 49535 74
Town Panchayats
1 Naduvattam 8505 88
2 O'Valley 21943 81
3 Jagathala 14383 70
4 Kothagiri 28207 70
5 Devarshola 24954 78
6 Bikketti 5864 100
7 Adikaratti 14178 87
8 Sholur 9745 74
9 Huligal 12960 72
10 Kethi 23229 76
11 Kilkunda 8886 80
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