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• Sivaganga district is bounded by Pudukkottai district in the Northeast, Ramanathapuram district in the East, Virudhunagar district in the Southwest, and Madurai in the West.
• The District is located between 09º 30'N to 10º 25'N Latitude, and 78º 07'E to 79º 01’E Longitude and has an areal extent of 4143 sq.km.
• There are 12 Blocks, 445 Villages and 3352 Habitations in the District.
 Physiography and Drainage:
• The northern part of the District is drained by the rivers Pambar, Manimuttar and Sarugani rivers and the southern part is drained by Vaigai River.
• The northern, western part of the district comprising of Tiruppathur taluk is a high ground studded will hillocks and residual hills.
• The stretch trending north east to south west extending from Puduvayal to Manamadurai is an upland. The rest of the area is a plain alluvial terrain.
The average annual rainfall and the 5 years rainfall collected from IMD, Chennai is as follows:
Acutal Rainfall in mmNormal Rainfall in mm
Rock TypeGeological Formation
Sedimentary Rock 60%
Hard Rock 40%
Sandstone, Laterite, Silt,
Alluvium, Charnockite, Gneiss,
Granite, Quartzite
Type of Aquifer Unconfined in hard rocks.Semi confined
to Confined in sedimentary.
Aquifer parametersHard rock formationSedimentary
Well yield in lpm50 - 150400 - 2200
Transmissivity (T)m2/day 20 - 70300 - 2500
Permeability (K)(m/day))1.02 - 2.5420.45 - 64.45
Depth of Water level3 m to 10m
 Ground Water Level::
The Ground Water levels from the 79 number of observation wells of TWAD have been analysed for Post-Monsoon and Pre-Monsoon. Since 1991 average Ground water level in m Below Ground Level for pre and post monsoon is as follows:
With a view to enhance the Sustainability of the drinking water sources, recharge structures are being implemented by TWAD Board under various State and Central Government assistances.
The Recharge Structures implemented so far is as under.
Recharge Structures
Check Dam Percolation Pond Recharge Pit Recharge Trench Others Ooranies Defunct Bore well Recharge Recharge Shaft Roof top RWH Hydro Fracturing Total
67 16 24 3 126 10 24 270
 Groundwater Potential as on March 2011 (as per CGWB):
Net Groundwater Availability (in MCM)985.89
Existing Gross Groundwater draft for all users (in MCM)157.16
Stage of Groundwater development (in %)16 %
Categorization of DistrictSafe
 Categorization of Firkas:
The status of Categorization of firkas as of March 2011 for the District is shown below.
Categorisation based on Extraction (as on 2011) No. of Firkas Firkas
Over Exploited (>100%) -
Critical (90%-100%) -
Semi Critical (70%-90%) 1 Varappur.
Safe (<70%) 37 A. Thiruvuduirpuram, Devakottai,
Ilayangudi, Ilayathakudi, Kalayarkovil,
Kallal, Kandadevi, Kannangudi,
Karaikudi, Konthagai, Mallal,
Manamadurai, Maravamangalam,
Mathagupatti, Mithravayal, Muthanenthal,
Natchiyapuram, Nattarasankottai,
Nerkuppai, Okkur, Pallathur, Periyakottai(S),
Puzhiyal, S.S.Kottai, Sakkottai,
Salaigramam, Sarugani, Seikalathur,
Singampunari, Sivagangai, Sooranam,
Thamarakki, Thayamangalam, Thirukostiyur,
Thiruppachethy, Thiruppathur, Thiruppuvanam.
Others (Poor& Saline) -
Total 38
Water supply status as on 1.4.2017
 Rural Habitations
Total No. of Rural Habitations: 3352
Partially covered286 (10-39 lpcd )
Fully covered3066 (40 lpcd and above)
 Urban Towns (Water supply status - Sep 2016)
S.NOName of Towns Population Present water supply level LPCD
1Karaikudi 106714 112
2Devakottai 51865 81
3 Sivaganga 40403 54
Town Panchayats
1 Thiruppuvanam 24554 72
2 Nattarasankottai 5860 76td>
3 Puduvayal 11284 76
4 Kanadukathan 5275 75
5 Ilayangudi 24767 50
6 Kottaiyur 14766 72
7 Kandanur 7696 76
8 Singampuneri 18143 81
9 Palathur 9580 81
10 Manamadhurai 32257 72
11 Thirupathur 25980 32
12 Nerkuppai 7165 34
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