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• Thanjavur district is bounded by Thiruvarur district on the east, by sea (Gulf of Manner) on the southeast, by Pudukkottai district on the south and southwest, by Tiruchirappalli district on the west and northwest and by Ariyalur district on the northeast.
• The District lies between 10º 09'00”N to 11º 14' 00”N Latitude, 78º 50’ 00”E to 79º 33'30”E Longitude and has an aerial extent of 3476 sq.km.
• There are 14 Blocks, 589 Villages and 4363 Habitations in the District
 Physiography and Drainage:
• Thanjavur district is part of delta formed by the Cauvery River.
• River Kollidam forms the northern boundary of the district and flows from west to east and northeast and at the western boundary of the district the big regulator Grand Anicut has been constructed.
• The district area falls under three river basins namely Cauvery sub basin, Vennar sub basin and new delta area. There are major canals branches and few seasonal rivers such as Kattar, Agniar, and Nasuvini Aar flow from the west to east and southeast on the southern part of the district.
The average annual rainfall and the 5 years rainfall collected from IMD, Chennai is as follows:
Acutal Rainfall in mmNormal Rainfall in mm
Rock TypeGeological Formation
Sedimentary Rock 97%
Hard Rock 3%
Sandstone, Sand, Laterite, Black
clay, Alluvium, Gneiss, Quartzite
Type of Aquifer Fairly thick discontinious confined
acquifer fresh groundwater overlained
by saline water towards the coast
Depth of Water level1 m to 8m
 Ground Water Level::
The Ground Water levels from the 35 number of observation wells of TWAD have been analysed for Post-Monsoon and Pre-Monsoon. Since 1991 average Ground water level in m Below Ground Level for pre and post monsoon is as follows:
With a view to enhance the Sustainability of the drinking water sources, recharge structures are being implemented by TWAD Board under various State and Central Government assistances.
The Recharge Structures implemented so far is as under.
Recharge Structures
Check Dam Percolation Pond Recharge Pit Recharge Trench Others Ooranies Defunct Bore well Recharge Recharge Shaft Roof top RWH Hydro Fracturing Total
6 2 46 166 5 4 71 25 325
 Groundwater Potential as on March 2011 (as per CGWB):
Net Groundwater Availability (in MCM)789.05
Existing Gross Groundwater draft for all users (in MCM)819.33
Stage of Groundwater development (in %)104 %
Categorization of DistrictOver Exploited
 Categorization of Firkas:
The status of Categorization of firkas as of March 2011 for the District is shown below.
Categorisation based on Extraction (as on 2011) No. of Firkas Firkas
Over Exploited (>100%) 24 Aduthurai, Ammapettai,
Avanam, Ayyampettai, Devanancheri,
Kandiyur, Kathiramangalam, Kumbakonam,
Kuruvikarambai, Melattur,
Murukkangudi, Nachiyarkoil, Nadukaveri,
Nanjikottai, Pandanallur,
Papanasam, Ramapuram,
Thiruvaiyaru, Thiruvidamarudur, Vallam,
Thondarampattu, Tiruchitrambalam,
Tiruppanandal, Thiruvarankurichi.
Critical (90%-100%) 5 Kabisthalam,Pattukkottai,Thanjavur,Thirumangalakottai,Thirukkattupalli
Semi Critical (70%-90%) 11 Budalur, Cholanmaligai,
Kavalipatti, Sillathur..
Safe (<70%) 10 Agarapettai, Eachankottai, Madukkur,
Orathanad, Periyakottai,Peravurani,
Perumagalur, Saliyamangalam,
Sengipatti, Thekkur.
Others (Poor& Saline) 0
Total 50
Water supply status as on 1.4.2017
 Rural Habitations
Total No. of Rural Habitations: 4363
Partially covered942 (10-39 lpcd )
Fully covered3421 (40 lpcd and above)
 Urban Towns (Water supply status - Sep 2016)
S.NOName of Towns Population Present water supply level LPCD
1 Pattukkottai 73135 111
2 Thanjavur 222943 124
3 Kombakonam 140156 114
Town Panchayats
1 Adiramapattinam 31066 82
2 Aduthurai alias Maruthuvakudi 11705 93
3 Ammapettai 14572 74
4 Ayyampettai 16263 98
5 Cholapuram 6803 90
6 Dharasuram 15326 90
7 Madukkur 16266 99
8 Melathiruppanthuruthi 9074 89
9 Melattur 8131 99
10 Orathanadu (Mukthambalpuram) 10247 99
11 Papanasam 17548 88
12 Peravurani 22084 86
13 Perumagalur 5604 97
14 Swamimalai 7289 98
15 Thirukkattupalli 12972 96
16 Thirunageswaram 15082 99
17 Thiruppanandal 11169 99
18 Thirupuvanam 14989 95
19 Thiruvaiyaru 16164 88
20 Thiruvidaimarudur 14786 74
21 Vallam 16758 76
22 Veppathur 7949 79
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