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• Thoothukkudi district lies in the South eastern corner of Tamil Nadu.
• The District is bounded on the North by Virudhunagar and Ramanathapuram district, by Bay of Bengal in the East, Tirunelveli District in the West and South West.
• The District lies between 8 º19'00”N and 9º 20'00”N Latitude, 77º 40'00” E and 78º 10’00”E Longitude and has an areal extent of 4621 sq.km.
• There are 12 Blocks, 403 Villages and 1740 Habitations in the District.
 Physiography and Drainage:
• Thoothukkudi district is one of the coastal Districts of Tamil Nadu.
• The drainage network in the District is constituted by the rivers originating in Western Ghats and Tamil Nadu uplands and flowing towards the Bay of Bengal.
• Few streams originate in the hillocks within the district and confluences directly with the sea.
• Vaippar and Karamaniyar are the major rivers draining the area which are ephemeral in nature.
• Tamiraparani is the major and perennial river in the district with a mature stage of development and on the way receives several important tributaries such as Karaiyar, Servalar, Manimuthar, Kadana, etc.,
The average annual rainfall and the 5 years rainfall collected from IMD, Chennai is as follows:
Acutal Rainfall in mmNormal Rainfall in mm
Rock TypeGeological Formation
Hard Rock 73%
Sedimentary Rock 27%
Charnockite, Gneiss, Granite,
Limestone, Sandstone, Alluvium,
Sandy silt and Marine deposit
Type of Aquifer Unconfined to Semi confined conditions
Aquifer parametersHard rockAlluvial
Well yield in lpm45 - 135315 - 1080
Transmissivity (T)m2/day 15 - 60210 - 1500
Permeability (K)(m/day))1 - 319 - 48
Depth of Water level5m to 20m
 Ground Water Level::
The Ground Water levels from the 49 number of observation wells of TWAD have been analysed for Post-Monsoon and Pre-Monsoon. Since 1991 average Ground water level in m Below Ground Level for pre and post monsoon is as follows:
With a view to enhance the Sustainability of the drinking water sources, recharge structures are being implemented by TWAD Board under various State and Central Government assistances.
The Recharge Structures implemented so far is as under.
Recharge Structures
Check Dam Percolation Pond Recharge Pit Recharge Trench Others Ooranies Defunct Bore well Recharge Recharge Shaft Roof top RWH Hydro Fracturing Total
102 10 7 5 50 174
 Groundwater Potential as on March 2011 (as per CGWB):
Net Groundwater Availability (in MCM)544.56
Existing Gross Groundwater draft for all users (in MCM)235.36
Stage of Groundwater development (in %)43 %
Categorization of DistrictSafe
 Categorization of Firkas:
The status of Categorization of firkas as of March 2011 for the District is shown below.
Categorisation based on Extraction (as on 2011) No. of Firkas Firkas
Over Exploited (>100%) 3 Ilayarasanendal,
Pallakurichi, Sattankulam, Udangudi.
Critical (90%-100%) 1 Parivallikottai
Semi Critical (70%-90%) 4 Kadambur, Kayathar, Kovilpatti,Ottapidaram,Sathankulam.
Safe (<70%) 33 Alwarthirunagari, Arumugamangalam,
Authoor, Cholapuram, Deivaseyalpuram,
Eppodumvendran, Ettayapuram,
Kadaliyur, Kadalkudi, Kalugumalai,
Kamanaickenpatti, Keelathattaparai,
Kulathur, Maniyachi, Mudivaithanendal,
Muthulapuram, Nallatinputhur,
Padarnthapuli, Pasuvanthanai,
Perungulam, Pudukottai(T),
Pudur, Seidunganallur, Sivagnanapuram,
Srivaikundam, Srivenkateswarapuram,
Thoothukudi, Tiruchendur, Vallanad,
Vedanatham, Vembar, Vilathikulam.
Others (Poor& Saline) -
Total 41
Water supply status as on 1.4.2017
 Rural Habitations
Total No. of Rural Habitations: 1740
Partially covered84 (10-39 lpcd )
Fully covered1656 (40 lpcd and above)
 Urban Towns (Water supply status - Sep 2016)
S.NOName of Towns Population Present water supply level LPCD
1Thoothukudi237830 85
1 Kovilpatti 95057 72
2 Kayalpattinam 40588 50
Town Panchayats
1 Alwarthirunagiri 9289 70
2 Arumuganeri 27266 70
3 Athur 10138 50
4 Eral 9478 70
5 Ettayapuram 12772 53
6 Kadambur 4155 65
7 Kalugumalai 14738 51
8 Kanam 3134 70
9 Kayatharu 10400 63
10 Nazerath 16584 70
11 Perungulam 7203 69
12 Sathankulam 14193 75
13 Sayapuram 12792 70
14 Srivaikuntam 15847 70
15 Thenthiruperai 4934 71
16 Tiruchendur 32171 75
17 Udangudi 19738 71
18 V. Pudur 8891 51
19 Vilathikulam 15277 50
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