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• Villuppuram district is bounded by Bay of Bengal and the union Territory of Pondicherry in the east, Kancheepuram and Tiruvannamalai districts in the north, Cuddalore and Perambalur districts in the south and Dharmapuri and Salem districts in the west.
• The District lies between 11º30’00’’ to 12º35’00’’ North Latitude, and 78º37’00’’ to 80º00’00’’ East Longitude and has an areal extent of 7190 sq.km.
• There are 22 Blocks, 1099 Villages and 4883 Habitations in the District.
 Physiography and Drainage:
• Villupuram district can be divided into 3 classes’ viz., Hilly terrains, Plain terrain and coastal plains.
• The hills are found in the western part of the district and they are Kalrayan and Ginjee hills falling under Kallakurichi and Ginjee taluks respectively.
• Plain terrain occurs in the middle part of this district, while the coastal plains lie in the eastern part of the district in and around Marakanam and Vanur taluks.
• The major rivers draining the district are Tondiar, Pennaiyar and Vellar.
The average annual rainfall and the 5 years rainfall collected from IMD, Chennai is as follows:
Acutal Rainfall in mmNormal Rainfall in mm
Rock TypeGeological Formation
Sedimentary Rock 60%
Hard Rock 40%
Charnockite, Granite, Gneiss,
Limestone, Pegmatite, Laterite,
Sandstone and Shale, Lignite and
Type of Aquifer Groundwater restricted to 60 to 80m depth in
weathered fracture zones having secondary porosity.
Aquifer parametersAlluviumTertiaryHard rock
Well yield in lpm2.52 - 3.31 - 2
Transmissivity (T)m2/day 9816 - 335 - 20
Specific capacity (lpm/md) 19.746 - 13416 - 60
Permeability (K)(m/day))2.0878 - 17327 - 224
Depth of Water level4m to 14m
 Ground Water Level::
The Ground Water levels from the 89 number of observation wells of TWAD have been analysed for Post-Monsoon and Pre-Monsoon. Since 1991 average Ground water level in m Below Ground Level for pre and post monsoon is as follows:
With a view to enhance the Sustainability of the drinking water sources, recharge structures are being implemented by TWAD Board under various State and Central Government assistances.
The Recharge Structures implemented so far is as under.
Recharge Structures
Check Dam Percolation Pond Recharge Pit Recharge Trench Others Ooranies Defunct Bore well Recharge Recharge Shaft Roof top RWH Hydro Fracturing Total
332 2 86 7 5 50 482
 Groundwater Potential as on March 2011 (as per CGWB):
Net Groundwater Availability (in MCM)1498.28
Existing Gross Groundwater draft for all users (in MCM)1539.35
Stage of Groundwater development (in %)103%
Categorization of DistrictOver Exploited
 Categorization of Firkas:
The status of Categorization of firkas as of March 2011 for the District is shown below.
Categorisation based on Extraction (as on 2011) No. of Firkas Firkas
Over Exploited (>100%) 30 Anniyur, Arasur (V), Avalurpettai,
Brammadesam, Chithalingamadam,
Elavanasurkottai, Eraiyur, Gingee, Indili,
Kalamarudur, Kiliyanur,
Marakkanam, Melmalaiyanur
, Melolakkur, Nagalur, Nainarpalayam,
Nemili, Olakkur, Sathampati,
Sathiyamangalam, Siruvadi,
Sithalampattu, T.V.Nallur,
Thiyagadurgam, Tindivanam,
Ulundurpettai, Uppuvelur, Vadasiruvalur,
Vallam (V), Vikkiravandi,
Cholapuram (V).
Critical (90%-100%) 4 Chinnaselam, Kanjanur,Villuppuram,Vanur.
Semi Critical (70%-90%) 11 Arakandanallur, Kallakurichi, Kanai,
Kandamangalam, Manalurpettai, Mailam
Sengurichi,Mugaiyur, Kalrayan Kottai ,
Thirukovilur, Vadakanandal
Safe (<70%) 11 Alathaur, Ariyalur(V), Deevanur,
Mugaiyur, Rettanai,
sankarapuram, Thirunavalur, Vellimalai
Thiruppalapandal, Vadaponparapi,
Others (Poor& Saline) -
Total 55
Water supply status as on 1.4.2017
 Rural Habitations
Total No. of Rural Habitations: 4883
Partially covered 0 (10-39 lpcd )
Fully covered 4883 (40 lpcd and above)
 Urban Towns (Water supply status - Sep 2016)
S.NOName of Towns Population Present water supply level LPCD
1 Villupuram 96253 71
2 Thindivanam 72796 56
3 Kallakurichi 52507 75
Town Panchayats
1 Ulundurpettai 23734 71
2 Thiruvennainallur 9623 72
3 Vickravandi 12022 70
4 Vadakkananthal 23034 74
5 Manalurpettai 8523 70
6 Thirukovilur 30212 70
7 Kottakuppam 31726 90
8 Thiagadurgam 18605 70
9 Sankarapuram 15664 70
10 Valavanur 16745 80
11 Ananthapuram 6892 70
12 Gingee 27045 70
13 Arakandanallur 5713 75
14 Chinnasalem 25106 71
15 Marakkanam 22034 72
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