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• Virudhunagar district is located in the South Western part of Tamil Nadu bounded by Ramanathapuram district in the East, Kerala State in the West, Madurai, Theni districts in the North and Tirunelveli and Thoothukkudi Districts in the South.
• The District lies between 9º12'N to 9º47'N Latitude, 77º 23'E to 78º 25'E Longitude and has an areal extent of 4283 sq.km.
• There are 11 Blocks, 450 Villages and 1924 Habitations in the District.
 Physiography and Drainage:
• The District is divided into two distinct regions (viz) (i) the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats in Srivilliputhur and Rajapalayam taluks with undulations and (ii) eastern plains.
• The Western Ghats occur as a series of parallel ridges running in a NE – SW directions and the eastern plain region is a flat terrain with isolated hillocks around Aruppukottai and Sattur.
• The area falls in two major river basins namely Vaippar and Gundar.
• River Vaippar originates from the Echamalai Mottai near Sivagiri in Tirunelveli District and flows in the easterly and south easterly direction before it debouches into Gulf of Mannar.
• The river has a number of tributaries of which Arjuna Nadi is an important one.
The average annual rainfall and the 5 years rainfall collected from IMD, Chennai is as follows:
Acutal Rainfall in mmNormal Rainfall in mm
Rock TypeGeological Formation
Sedimentary Rock 90%
Hard Rock 10%
ChGneiss, Charnockite, Quatrzite,
Pegamatite, Laterite, Sandstone
and Alluvium
Type of Aquifer Unconfined to Semi confined conditions
Aquifer parametersHard rock River Alluvium
Well yield in lpm40 - 110200 - 400
Transmissivity (T)m2/day 0.224 - 0.614.91 - 671.14
Permeability (K)(m/day))0.049 - 0.14719.57 - 83.17
Depth of Water level7 m to 18m
 Ground Water Level::
The Ground Water levels from the 60 number of observation wells of TWAD have been analysed for Post-Monsoon and Pre-Monsoon. Since 1991 average Ground water level in m Below Ground Level for pre and post monsoon is as follows:
With a view to enhance the Sustainability of the drinking water sources, recharge structures are being implemented by TWAD Board under various State and Central Government assistances.
The Recharge Structures implemented so far is as under.
Recharge Structures
Check Dam Percolation Pond Recharge Pit Recharge Trench Others Ooranies Defunct Bore well Recharge Recharge Shaft Roof top RWH Hydro Fracturing Total
351 18 369
 Groundwater Potential as on March 2011 (as per CGWB):
Net Groundwater Availability (in MCM)495.19
Existing Gross Groundwater draft for all users (in MCM)341.86
Stage of Groundwater development (in %)69%
Categorization of DistrictSafe
 Categorization of Firkas:
The status of Categorization of firkas as of March 2011 for the District is shown below.
Categorisation based on Extraction (as on 2011) No. of Firkas Firkas
Over Exploited (>100%) 5 Cholapuram (V), Keelarajakularaman,
Nathampatti, Ethirkottai, Vatchakara-
Critical (90%-100%) 4 Mallankinar, Mangalam,
Salwarpatti, Vatchakara-
Patti .
Semi Critical (70%-90%) 11 Amathur, Iyankollankondan, Kottaiyur,
Malli, Nalli, Rajapalayam
Ondipulinaickanur, Srivilliputtur, Watrap, Elayiran-Pannai, Sivakasi
Safe (<70%) 16 A.Mukkulam, Aruppukottai, Kalkuruchi,
Kariapatti, Mudukkan-kulam, Narikudi,
Nenmeni, Palayamapatti, Pandalkudi,
Paralatchi, Sattur, Seithur, Thiruchuli,
Veeracholan, Virudhunagar, Mandapasalai.
Others (Poor& Saline) -
Total 36
Water supply status as on 1.4.2017
 Rural Habitations
Total No. of Rural Habitations: 1924
Partially covered 727(10-39 lpcd )
Fully covered 1197 (40 lpcd and above)
 Urban Towns (Water supply status - Sep 2016)
S.NOName of Towns Population Present water supply level LPCD
1 Sivakasi 71040 61
2 Rajapalayam 130442 54
3 Sathur 29398 52
4 Srivilliputhur 75396 73
5 Virudhunagar 72296 74
6 Aruppukkottai 87722 60
7 Thiruthangal 55362 55
Town Panchayats
1 Chettiyarpatti 17520 56
2 Mallankinaru 12986 61
3 Vathiraruppu 16784 64
4 Sundarapandiyam 8513 56
5 Kariyapatti 18191 56
6 V.Pudupatti 8316 60
7 Seithur 20228 60
8 S.Kodikulam 12713 57
9 Mamsapuram 18635 57
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